Information we collect
We collect information about you in three ways: directly from your input, from third-party sources, and through automated technologies.
Information you provide to us
The types of personal information that we collect directly from you depends on the content and features of the Service you use and how you otherwise interact with us and may include:
- Contact details, such as your name, email address, postal address, phone number and social media handle;
- Account login credentials, such as usernames and passwords, password hints and similar security information;
- Other account registration and profile information, including educational, professional and other background information, such as your field of study, current position, practice area and areas of interests, gender, ORCID ID and photo;
- Content that you upload and share or store in your account, such as annotations, comments, contributions and replies;
- Payment information, such as a credit or debit card number, and government-issued ID numbers;
- Information that you communicate to us, such as questions or information you send to customer support;
- Data that you provide to us as part of interacting with the Service, such as your favorites and search queries; and/or
- Communications preferences, such as your preferred language and the frequency, type and format of the alerts you sign up to receive.
Data from your institution
We may obtain information about you from the institution with which you are employed or affiliated in order to activate and manage your access to and use of the institution’s subscription to the Service, including:
- Contact details, such as your name and institutional email address, postal address and phone number;
- Other account registration information, such as job title; and/or
- Institutional user ID.
Data from other sources
We also may obtain contact details and other information about you from other entities within RELX and from third parties, including:
- Social networks that you grant permission to the Service to access your data on one or more networks;
- Service providers that help us determine a location in order to customize certain products to your location;
- Partners with which we offer co-branded services or engage in joint marketing activities; and/or
- Publicly available sources and data suppliers to validate or supplement the information we hold or to support the Service.
Device and usage data
The Service may automatically collect information about how you and your device interact with the Service, such as:
- Computer, device and connection information, such as IP address, browser type and version, operating system and other software installed on your device, unique device identifier and other technical identifiers, error reports and performance data;
- Usage data, such as the features you used, the settings you selected, URL click stream data, including date and time stamp and referring and exit pages, and pages you visited on the Service;
- For educational Services, the course modules and test questions you view, answer or complete; and/or
- For location-aware Services, the physical location of your device.
How we use your information
We are committed to delivering a relevant and useful experience to you. Depending on how you interact with us and the Service, we use your personal information to:
- Provide, activate and manage your access to and use of the Service;
- Process and fulfill a request, order, download, subscription or other transaction;
- Offer you customized content and other personalization to make the Service more efficient for you and more relevant to your interests and geography;
- Enhance and improve the Service, such as add new content and features;
- Notify you about changes, updates and other announcements related to the Service;
- Deliver targeted advertisements, promotional messages, and other information related to the Service and to your interests;
- Provide technical, product and other support and help to keep the Service working, safe and secure; and/or
- Identify usage trends and develop data analysis, including for the purposes of research, audits, reporting and other business operations, such as to pay royalties and license fees to third-party content providers, determine the effectiveness of our promotional campaigns, evaluate our business performance, or in other ways pursuant to a customer agreement.
We may also use your personal information to:
- Respond to your requests, inquiries, comments or concerns;
- Invite you to submit or review manuscripts or otherwise participate in our publishing programs;
- Issue payments and statements, such as for royalties and editorial fees;
- Conduct and administer user testing and surveys as well as sweepstakes, competitions and similar promotions;
- Provide you with relevant promotional messages and other information about products, events and services of ours, our group companies and third parties such as societies and sponsors;
- Enhance and improve our products, events and services and develop new ones; and/or
- Comply with our legal obligations, resolve disputes and enforce our agreements.
Sharing of your information
We share your personal information in the following ways and contexts.
If you access the Service through a subscription administered by your institution, your personal information and certain usage data gathered through the Service, such as the number of items you downloaded, any fee-based items you accessed, and test scores, may be accessed by or shared with the administrators authorized by your institution for the purposes of usage analysis, subscription management, course management and testing and remediation. If your institution is a corporation or other business entity, additional usage data, such as the types of records you viewed and the number of searches you ran, also may be shared for the purposes of cost attribution and departmental budgeting.
We may also disclose to your institution or other third parties non-personally identifiable information, such as anonymous usage data reports and aggregated information, subject to any applicable legal or contractual obligations.
Our group companies and service providers
Depending on the Service provided, we share your personal information with our:
- Affiliates, trading names and divisions within the group of companies and certain RELX companies that provide technology, customer service and other shared services functions; and/or
- Suppliers and service providers, including editors, reviewers, payment processors, customer support, email service providers, access and authentication service providers, event venues and service providers, mailing houses, shipping agents and IT service providers;
We may also share your personal information with our group companies and with sponsors, joint venture partners and other third parties, including entities for which we are acting as an agent, licensee, application host or publisher, such as societies, that wish to send you invitations, surveys, programs or information about their products and services that may be of interest to you as determined by your choices in managing your communications preferences and other settings.
The Service may let you post and share personal information, comments, messages, materials and other content. Any such information that you disclose publicly or in discussion fora in the Service may be collected and used by others, may be indexed by search engines, and might not be able to be removed. Please be careful when disclosing personal information in these public areas.
We also will disclose your personal information if we have a good faith belief that such disclosure is necessary to:
- meet any applicable law, regulation, legal process or other legal obligation;
- detect, investigate and help prevent security, fraud or technical issues; and/or
- protect the rights, property or safety of our users, employees or others;
and as part of a corporate transaction, such as a transfer of a journal or other assets to or an acquisition by or merger with another company.
If you are an administrator of an institution with a subscription to a Service, we will use your details to communicate with you about your institution’s subscription and related services. If you supply us contact information of your colleagues, we may include a reference to you when we contact those individuals with communications about the Service.
Your communications preferences
You can customize and manage your communications preferences and other settings when you register with the Service, by updating your account features and preferences, by using the “opt-in/out” or subscribe/unsubscribe mechanisms or other means provided within the communications that you receive from us or by contacting us. We reserve the right to notify you of changes or updates to the Service whenever necessary.
Accessing and updating your information
The Service may allow registered users to directly access their account information and make corrections or updates at any time.
Keeping such information up to date is solely the responsibility of the user. Registered users may also close their account directly through the Service or by contacting the Service’s customer support.
You have the right under certain privacy and data protection laws, as may be applicable, to request free of charge:
- Access to and correction and deletion of your personal information;
- Restriction of our processing of your personal information, or to object to our processing; and/or
- Portability of your personal information.
If you wish to exercise any of these rights, please contact us. We will respond to your request consistent with applicable laws. To protect your privacy and security, we may require you to verify your identity. You may designate an authorized agent to make a request on your behalf subject to proof of identity and authorization.
We retain your personal information for as long as necessary to provide the Service and fulfill the transactions you have requested, or for other essential purposes such as complying with our legal obligations, maintaining business and financial records, resolving disputes, maintaining security, detecting and preventing fraud and abuse, and enforcing our agreements.
We take precautions to safeguard your personal information against loss, theft and misuse and unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration and destruction through the use of appropriate technical and organizational measures.
Grounds for processing
When we process any personal information within the scope of certain privacy and data protection laws, we do so:
- where necessary to provide the Service, fulfill a transaction or otherwise perform a contract with you or at your request prior to entering into a contract;
- where necessary for our compliance with applicable law or other legal obligation;
- where necessary for the performance of a task carried out in the public interest;
- where applicable, with your consent; and/or
- as necessary to operate our business, protect the security of our systems, customers and users, detect or prevent fraud, or fulfill our other legitimate interests as described in the sections above, except where our interests are overridden by your privacy rights.
Where we rely on your consent to process personal information, you have the right to withdraw your consent at any time, and where we rely on legitimate interests, you may have the right to object to our processing.
You also may lodge a complaint with the data protection authority in the applicable jurisdiction.